Publication Date : 15/06/2023

Author(s) :

Oputa, O., Obi, P. I., Diyoke, G. C., Onwuka, I. K., Ezeonye, C. S..

Volume/Issue :
Volume 18
Issue 2
(06 - 2023)

Abstract :

Distance protection schemes are used in the protection of transmission and distribution lines and they use distance relay in their operations. The protection scheme is always partitioned into two or more zones and each zone is a certain percentage of the entire length of the line (which may also include the next line). With all things being equal, the tripping of the relays is solely a function of the zones where the fault occurred, that is the location of the occurrence of the fault. However, it has been shown in this paper through simulations in Power System Computer-Aided Design (PSCAD) that the fault impedance value also slightly affects the trip location. For a double line (LL) fault (between AB) occurring in Zone 1 in our test 11 kV distribution line, the simulation in PSCAD shows that the distance relay/protection system trips inaccurately in Zone 2 for a fault impedance of 0.1Ω and 0.5Ω and trips accurately in Zone 1 for fault impedance of 1Ω, 5Ω, and 10Ω. This indicates that tripping zone in distance protection schemes are not solely dependent on fault locations but also slightly dependent on the fault impedance.

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