Extraction, Characterization, and Formulation of Bio-lubricant from Neem (Azadiracta Indica) Seeds
Publication Date : 17/01/2023
Environmental pollution from excessive petroleum-based lubricants is risky, their disposal is hazardous hence the pollution-free environment and diminishing petroleum reserves has brought attention towards the use of vegetable oils as an alternative to petroleum oil-based lubricants. Neem seed can serve as a very good alternative to petroleum-based lubricant due to its biodegradability, availability, and environmental friendliness. In this research, the neem seeds were extracted with solvent extraction method using n-Hexane as extraction solvent and its yield was determined to be 40.1% at 65oC and 0.335 mm particle size. The physicochemical properties of extracted neem oil were determined using the ASTM standard procedures. The results obtained was found to have a low acid value 20.10 mg/KOH/g, low iodine value 56.47g/100g but relatively high specific gravity 0.902, density 902 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity at 40oC and 100oC was found to be 109 mm2/s, and 22.6 mm2/s respectively, pour point 12oC, cloud point 9oC and flash point 265oC. The neem oil has kinetic viscosity at 100oC, acidic value, density, and specific gravity compared to the SAE 20W50, whereas the SAE20W50 is better than the neem oil in other measured properties. The bio-lubricant obtained from Neem oil was produced using a transesterification process with methanol as alcohol and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as reaction catalyst and its yield was determined to be 82%. It is therefore recommended that there is a need for an additive that should be used to improve the quality of the bio-lubricant.
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