Biodiesel Production from Desert Date (Balanite Aegyptiaca) Kernel Oil Using Traditional Method of Oil Extraction
Publication Date : 26/04/2022
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that is a possible key solution in the fight against global warming and stabilizes the climate through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In this work, the oil of desert date (Balanite Aegyptiaca) kernel has been extracted using the traditional method of oil extraction which yielded 37.3%, and the chemical and physical properties of the oil were determined to ascertain its suitability for use in biodiesel production. The results of the analysis of the oil for Saponin value, Iodine value, Free fatty acid, Density, Specific gravity and Viscosity were found to be 150.93 mgKOH/g, 45.3 g/100g, 43 mgKOH/g, 0.856 g/cm3, 1.097 g/ml and 50 mm2/s respectively, and the oil was found to be the non-drying type of oil due to its low Iodine value. The result shows that Balanite oil was the good raw material for biodiesel production. The production of biodiesel was carried out using the extracted oil through transesterification process by 1:6 oil to methanol ratio and 0.462 of NaOH as a catalyst using 60 minutes reaction time between the oil and methoxide (mixture of methanol and NaOH) which yielded 70.3% biodiesel and the result of the analysis for the density, specific gravity, viscosity and flashpoint of the produced biodiesel were found to be 0.865 g/cm3, 5.5 mm2/s, 0.871 g/ml and 175°C respectively. In this work, the biodiesel produced was a liquid at room temperature, light yellow in colour with a pleasant smell, and the result was compared with the standard values of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and European Standard International Society Organization (ENISO) and found to be in conforms to both American and European standards.
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