Fire can be defined as a state in which substances or materials combined chemically with oxygen from the air and give out heat, smoke and flame; combustion or burning. In general, fire occurs only when 3 essentials elements come together: heat (sufficient), material (Fuel), and oxygen. Most of the available fire detection techniques such as smoke detector, flame detector, heat detector etc., have a problem of travelling delay and also give a high false alarm. The proposed algorithm detects fire at its early stage in both indoor and outdoor using video image processing with fewer false alarms. The algorithm begin by loading the selected video clip from the database developed to identifythe present or absence of fire in the video frame. In this approach, background subtraction was employed which is comparing the current frame with the reference frame. If the result of subtraction is less than the set threshold, the difference is ignored and the next frame is taken. However, if the difference is equal to or greater than the set threshold the frame is then subjected to color and shape test. This is done by using combined RGB color model and shape signature. The proposed technique was very effective in detecting a fire compared to those technique using only motion or color clues. The major contribution of this work is developing a database for both indoor and outdoor fire and also, an approach for detecting a fire using color and shape signature. The proposed technique can further be improved by monitoring the fire growth.
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