CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM COTTONSEED OIL USING DIFFERENT CATALYSTS
Publication Date : 16/08/2019
Biodiesel is being regarded as a realistic alternative to the conventional diesel fuel due to its renewability and environmental friendly attributes. Development of biodiesel from cottonseed oil could boost economic growth and its renewable nature could lead to sustainable energy development This paper presents a research carried out on the characterization of biodiesel produced from cottonseed oil using three different catalysts in order to determine the yield of biodiesel obtained using each of the catalysts and the reasons for the differences/variations in the properties of the biodiesel produced. The cottonseed oil biodiesel was produced via transesterification with methanol and catalyst. The reaction conditions employed were; methanol to oil molar ratio of 6:1, catalyst concentration of 1 wt. %, reaction temperature of 65oC and 1hour reaction time. The catalysts used were; NaOH (as homogeneous catalyst), CaO (as heterogeneous catalyst), and Nano-CaO (as heterogeneous nano catalyst) with each of the catalysts used to produce single biodiesel sample. The Nano‐CaO catalyst was prepared by calcination of ball‐milled chicken eggshell waste and it was characterized using SEM and XRD. The crystalline size of the Nano‐CaO catalyst was found to be about 30nm. The biodiesel samples produced were denoted according to the type of the catalyst used for its transesterification, i.e. B-NaOH, B-CaO and B-Nano-CaO, for NaOH, CaO, and Nano-CaO catalysts, respectively. The samples were characterized to determine their physico-chemical properties. The characterization results showed that Nano-CaO catalyst gave the highest biodiesel yield (99%) followed by CaO (96.5%) and NaOH (94%) after transesterification reaction of the esterified cottonseed oil with methanol. The results further showed that the properties of the B-CaO, and B-Nano-CaO biodiesel samples were similar (with negligible variation) and they differ from that of B-NaOH with reasonable margin. It was suggested that the differences were as a result of the purification steps undergone by B-NaOH biodiesel sample which was not done in the case of B-CaO, and B-Nano-CaO biodiesel samples.
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